Defective Graphene/Plasmonic Nanoparticle Hybrids for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Sensors

Biroju Ravi K., Marepally Bhanu Chandra, Malik Pariksha, Dhara Soumen, Gengan Saravanan, Maity Dipak, Narayanan Tharangattu N., Giri Pravat K.

In: ACS Omega 2023, 8, 4, 4344–4356, (2023)


Two-dimensional–zero-dimensional plasmonic hybrids involving defective graphene and transition metals (DGR-TM) have drawn significant interest due to their near-field plasmonic effects in the wide range of the UV–vis–NIR spectrum. In the present work, we carried out extensive investigations on resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) from the various DGR-TM hybrids (Au, Ag, and Cu) using micro-Raman, spatial Raman mapping analysis, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and LSPR absorption measurements on defective CVD graphene layers. Further, electric field (E) mappings of samples were calculated using the finite domain time difference (FDTD) method to support the experimental findings. The spatial distribution of various in-plane and edge defects and defect-mediated interaction of plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) with graphene were investigated on the basis of the RRS and LSPR and correlated with the quantitative analysis from HRTEM, excitation wavelength-dependent micro-Raman, and E-field enhancement features of defective graphene and defective graphene-Au hybrids before and after rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Excitation wavelength-dependent surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and LSPR-induced broadband absorption from DGR-Au plasmonic hybrids reveal the electron and phonon interaction on the graphene surface, which leads to the charge transfer from TM NPs to graphene. This is believed to be responsible for the reduction in the SERS signal, which was observed from the wavelength-dependent Raman spectroscopy/mappings. We implemented defective graphene and DGR-Au plasmonic hybrids as efficient SERS sensors to detect the Fluorescein and Rhodamine 6G molecules with a detection limit down to 10–9 M. Defective graphene and Au plasmonic hybrids showed an impressive Raman enhancement in the order of 108, which is significant for its practical application.