Autor Lubomír Vančo

Effect of temperature and carrier gas on the properties of thick InxAl1-xN layer

Prerna Chauhan, Stanislav Hasenöhrl, Edmund Dobročka, Ľubomír Vančo, Roman Stoklas, Jaroslav Kováč, Peter Šiffalovič, Ján Kuzmík

In Applied Surface Science. Vol.470, (2019)


Thick (>150nm) InxAl1-xN layers were grown on GaN/sapphire (0001) by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy. Growth temperature of InxAl1-xN layers was reduced from 790 to 730°C, to examine the effects of growth temperature in InxAl1-xN layers grown under H2 carrier gas. Indium incorporation, surface morphology, electrical, and optical properties of InxAl1-xN layers were examined as a function of growth temperature. Increase in In-molar fraction, as determined by high resolution X-ray diffraction, was observed with decreasing growth temperature of InxAl1-xN layers at the expense of surface roughness. Unstrained InxAl1-xN layer was achieved at 730°C under H2 carrier gas with x=0.18. However, InxAl1-xN layer grown under N2 carrier gas at 730°C to study the effects of carrier gas, was observed with two times higher In-molar fraction (x=0.37) and one order lower carrier concentration. This work shows the essential requirement of a multi-characterization approach to establish a connection between structural, electrical, and optical properties to improve our understanding towards InxAl1-xN. Edge threading dislocations density is found to be the most important parameter in deciding the characteristics of an InxAl1-xN layer.

Evidence of relationship between strain and In-incorporation: Growth of N-polar In-rich InAlN buffer layer by OMCVD

CHAUHAN, Prerna – HASENÖHRL, Stanislav – DOBROČKA, Edmund – CHAUVAT, Marie-Pierre – MINJ, A. – GUCMANN, Filip – VANČO, Ľubomír – KOVÁČ, Jaroslav jr. – KRET, S. – RUTERANA, Pierre – KUBALL, Martin – ŠIFFALOVIČ, Peter – KUZMÍK, Ján

In Journal of Applied Physics. 125, iss. 10 (2019)


Two In𝑥Al1−𝑥NInAl1−N layers were grown simultaneously on different substrates [sapphire (0001) and the Ga-polar GaN template], but under the same reactor conditions, they were employed to investigate the mechanism of strain-driven compositional evolution. The resulting layers on different substrates exhibit different polarities and the layer grown on sapphire is N-polar. Moreover, for the two substrates, the difference in the degree of relaxation of the grown layers was almost 100%, leading to a large In-molar fraction difference of 0.32. Incorporation of In in In𝑥Al1−𝑥NInAl1−N layers was found to be significantly influenced by the strain imposed by the under-layers. With the evolutionary process of In-incorporation during subsequent layer growth along [0001], the direction of growth was investigated in detail by Auger electron spectroscopy. It is discovered that the In0.60Al0.40NIn0.60Al0.40N layer grown directly on sapphire consists of two different regions with different molar fractions: the transition region and the uniform region. According to the detailed cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, the transition region is formed near the hetero-interface due to the partial strain release caused by the generation of misfit-dislocations. The magnitude of residual strain in the uniform region decides the In-molar fraction. In𝑥Al1−𝑥NInAl1−N layers were analyzed by structural and optical characterization techniques. Our present work also shows that a multi-characterization approach to study In𝑥Al1−𝑥NInAl1−N is a prerequisite for their applications as a buffer layer.

Generation of hole gas in non-inverted InAl(Ga)N/GaN heterostructures

HASENÖHRL, Stanislav – CHAUHAN, Prerna – DOBROČKA, Edmund – STOKLAS, Roman – VANČO, Ľubomír – VESELÝ, Marián – BOUAZZAOUI, Farah – CHAUVAT, Marie-Pierre – RUTERANA, Pierre – KUZMÍK, Ján

In Applied Physics Express. Vol. 12, iss. 1 (2019)


InAlN/GaN structures are grown using organometallic chemical vapor deposition at 730 °C. The sample for which the chamber cleaning step was applied after GaN growth shows a sharp In0.3Al0.7N/GaN transition, free electron density of ∼2 × 1011 cm−2 and mobility of 44 cm2 V−1 s−1. On the other hand, the sample prepared without growth interruption demonstrated In0.4Al0.15Ga0.45N at the interface and compositional grading towards the In0.4Al0.6N surface. In this case a two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) is created with a density of ∼2 × 1012 cm−2 and mobility of ∼0.6 cm2 V−1 s−1. Ga incorporation in the InAlN barrier is crucial for designing non-inverted 2DHG transistors.

Raman spectroscopy of porous silicon substrates

KADLEČÍKOVÁ, Magdaléna – BREZA, Juraj – VANČO, Ľubomír – MIKOLÁŠEK, Miroslav – HUBEŇÁK, Michal – RACKO, Juraj – GREGUŠ, Ján

In Optik. Vol. 174, (2018)


We have investigated the effect of the etching time on the Raman spectra of porous silicon prepared by anodic etching. Electrochemical destruction of the substrate increasing with the etching time and the correlation between the microstructure of the silicon wafer and the shape and position of their Raman spectra have been observed. Raman analysis has shown that the intensity of the Raman dominant silicon band decreases and the bandwidth is shifted to lower frequencies, depending on the morphology of the sample. Therefore we believe that the electrochemical destruction of the surface of Si substrates leads to surface amorphization.

Oxidation-Induced Structure Transformation: Thin-Film Synthesis and Interface Investigations of Barium Disilicide toward Potential Photovoltaic Applications

Oxidation-Induced Structure Transformation: Thin-Film Synthesis and Interface Investigations of Barium Disilicide toward Potential Photovoltaic Applications

TIAN, Yilei – VISMARA, Elena – VAN DOORENE, Steve – ŠUTTA, Pavol – VANČO, Ľubomír – VESELÝ, Marián – VOGRINČIČ, Peter – ISABELLA, Olindo – ZEMAN, Miro

In ACS Applied Energy Materials. Vol. 1, iss. 7 (2018)


Barium disilicide (BaSi2) has been regarded as a promising absorber material for high-efficiency thin-film solar cells. However, it has confronted issues related to material synthesis and quality control. Here, we fabricate BaSi2 thin films via an industrially applicable sputtering process and uncovered the mechanism of structure transformation. Polycrystalline BaSi2 thin films are obtained through the sputtering process followed by a postannealing treatment. The crystalline quality and phase composition of sputtered BaSi2 are characterized by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). A higher annealing temperature can promote crystallization of BaSi2, but also causes an intensive surface oxidation and BaSi2/SiO2 interfacial diffusion. As a consequence, an inhomogeneous and layered structure of BaSi2 is revealed by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The thick oxide layer in such an inhomogeneous structure hinders further both optical and electrical characterizations of sputtered BaSi2. The structural transformation process of sputtered BaSi2 films then is studied by the Raman depth-profiling method, and all of the above observations come to an oxidation-induced structure transformation mechanism. It interprets interfacial phenomena including surface oxidation and BaSi2/SiO2 interdiffusion, which lead to the inhomogeneous and layered structure of sputtered BaSi2. The mechanism can also be extended to epitaxial and evaporated BaSi2 films. In addition, a glimpse toward future developments in both material and device levels is presented. Such fundamental knowledge on structural transformations and complex interfacial activities is significant for further quality control and interface engineering on BaSi2 films toward high-efficiency solar cells.